What is a horn?
A horn that is also known as a speaker or speaker is a transducer that is used to transform electrical signals into mechanical waves, that is, into vibrations that propagate through an object. By controlling the time and length of these vibrations, you can create any kind of sound or a set of them.
Parts of a horn
Each of the parts that make up a horn is essential, as they play an important role in creating the sound. Among the most common components we can find:
- Magnet: This is a circular magnet that is placed at the bottom of the horn.
- Electromagnet:It is a copper wire wound in a cylindrical core that is used to receive the electrical signals that generate magnetic poles.
- Connection terminals: They are copper meshes that connect to the ends of the coil to be able to form the positive and negative.
- Spider: Serves to keep the electromagnet centered and avoid moving sideways or colliding with the shell.
- Diaphragm: It is also known as a cone or membrane and is the part where vibrations are generated to produce sounds.
- Suspension: It serves to keep the diaphragm centered and to dampen the vibrations generated in it a little.
- Base or shell: It serves to keep all parts in place and also to protect them from blows, falls, etc.
- Dust cover: It is located right in the center of the horn and as its name implies it serves to prevent dust from entering the electromagnet and it jams.
How is the sound created?
The process to create a sound is quite simple, since it is only a matter of vibrating an object so that it transmits those vibrations to the air and moves it. These movements are perceived by hatreds and send them in the form of signals to the brain, so that it processes them and translates them into what we know as a sound, depending on the speed with which the object vibrates, the sounds may be sharper or more serious.
How does a horn work?
A horn can create all kinds of sounds because it can control the vibration of a membrane at will. This is achieved using the law of the magnetic poles that says: “Opposite poles attract and equals repel.” To successfully use this law, an electromagnet is placed that is capable of generating any magnetic pole depending on the direction of the electric current.
A permanent magnet is placed in a horn and just above the electromagnet that goes along with the membrane that creates the sound is placed, to make it vibrates it is only a matter of sending an electrical signal that constantly changes direction so that the electromagnet’s magnetic field change and manage to generate a constant attraction and repulsion.
In simple words, the polarity changes cause the electromagnet to generate a vibration as it constantly rises and falls, this vibration is transmitted to the membrane and then to the air, and this is how sound is generated in a horn.
Types of speakers
Different types of speakers can practically be rated depending on the number of vibrations per second generated.
This type transmits frequencies below 80Hz which translates into bass sounds. They are practically the only ones capable of generating the lowest sounds without generating any distortion.
Within this category, we can find passive and active subwoofer. The first is the simplest since they only have the basic elements. To be able to use them properly you need an external source and equalizers. The assets are the most used and this is because a source and an equalizer are already incorporated inside it.
These speakers reproduce low to mid frequencies ranging from approximately 80 to 1,000 Hz. This type is mainly used in home theater due to its wide and dynamic range of operation.
The mid-woofer works with frequencies that go from 1,000 to 4,000 Hz, they are usually smaller and lighter than the woofer, this is due to the fact that the sounds it generates are higher pitched.
Among the most common horns, they are practically those that work with the largest frequency range since their working range is between 3,000 and 20,000 Hz