What are simple machines?

What are simple machines?
Simple machines are instruments or tools that help us to perform jobs in an easier way, either because they increase the force that is initially applied or because they allow it to change direction.

The operation of all these machines is explained by the law of simple machines. That in a few words says that in order to apply less force, you have to increase the distance.

Simple machines

How simple machines work
Despite the fact that these machines make tasks easier, they are not able to reduce the work done, because although they can add extra force or change direction, something always has to be sacrificed. In this case it is the force-distance relationship that is inversely proportional. In other words, when a lesser force is exerted, the application distance increases and if the force is greater, the distance is less.

For example:

To lift an object to a higher floor it is necessary to apply just the right force to lift and raise it « greater force – less distance «
But if instead of lifting it directly we put an inclined plane we use a smaller force buAlthough we can find a great variety of simple machines, we can find six fundamental ones that with some slight modifications or union of two different ones, new ones can be created.

Lever
This machine is practically a bar placed on a support point or sometimes called a “fulcrum” that has the ability to rotate on it, to exert a force called “power” with which it tries to overcome the resistance exerted by some object .

We can find three types of levers: the first, second and third class, it all depends on where the fulcrum is located.

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Planca

Pulley
This machine is characterized by changing the direction of the applied force, it is used to transmit the force through a rope to an object that is at another point, it also serves to transmit it between two mechanical axes placed in different places.

Within the pulleys we can find different ways to classify them, whether as mobile, fixed, hoists, by their physical shape or by the shape of their grooves. If you want to go deeper into the world of pulleys.

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Pulley operation

Inclined plane
This type of machine is also known as a ramp, because one end is higher than the other, thus giving rise to a slope. This inclination allows us to move objects to different heights in an easier way and with less use of force, this plane sacrifices distance for force, since if we simply load it vertically we use a greater force in a short distance, but without with this ramp we use a lower force but at a greater distance. (soon more detailed article)

Inclined plane

Cradle
A wedge is also considered as a simple machine and is basically the union of two inclined planes. It is designed to change a pushing force to a separating force since it sends the force applied to two different directions, the wedges are used either to separate an object in two, to lift it or to hold it somewhere.

(soon more detailed article)

Cradle

Screw
The screw is also considered a simple machine, since it changes a rotary force for a linear one. It is considered to be an inclined plane rolled into a cylinder due to the inclined shape of wrapping it. This machine is used to join two objects, to raise or lower and in more specific cases to cover.

(soon more detailed article)

Simple machine screw

Wheel and axle (old-crank)
The union of a wheel and axle is considered as a simple machine since they transform a circular movement into one of displacement. Normally a force is applied to the axle to make the wheel rotate to obtain a gain, either to lift or lower objects, to transmit the force to another wheel through a rope or to attach them to a base and to be able to move objects. and people.

(soon more detailed article)

Wheel and axle

Simple machines manual

Simple machines