What is an electric motor?
An electric motor is a machine that is responsible for converting electrical energy into mechanical energy through the action of the magnetic fields produced by its coils.
Direct current motors have several differences in that they are constructed differently compared to alternating current motors. One of the main differences is that they can work in reverse, that is, they can not only be used to transform electrical energy into mechanical ones. They can also function as electricity generators. This happens because they have the same physical construction as the generators.
DC motors have a high starting torque compared to AC motors. They are also easier to control speed, so they are effective in applications where speed control is required. They are used for elevators, trains, trams, electric cars and all those applications where constant speed control is required.
Parts of a common DC motor
A common direct or direct current motor is made up of the following parts or pieces:
Collector or switch
It houses, permanently, two permanent semicircle-shaped magnets, with their corresponding north and south poles.
cd motor housing
It consists of a metallic structure formed by a set of sheets or sheets of silicon steel, cut into a circular shape and mounted on the same axis with its corresponding coils of copper wire, which make it a rotating electromagnet. As a general rule, the rotor of most small DC motors consists of three coils or coils that create three magnetic poles. The ends of each of those coils are connected to different segments of the collector.
cd motor rotor
Collector or switch
Located at one end of the rotor shaft, it consists of a sliding ring sectioned into two or more segments. Generally, the collector of small common CD motors is divided into three segments.
cd motor collector
They represent two contacts that can be metallic in some cases or made up of two pieces of carbon in others. The brushes constitute electrical contacts that slide over the collector segments while they rotate. Its mission is to supply the coil or coils of the rotor through the, the direct electric current necessary to energize the electromagnet. In small motors, brushes are normally made up of two pieces or metallic straps that are fixed in the cover that closes the motor body or casing.
cd motor brushes