Drill and screwdriver! Maintenance, battery, engine and clutch

The screwdriver chuck has locked and now? If you don’t know how to maintain this tool, Mundo da Elétrica explains in this article how a battery screwdriver and drill work, showing all the details and parts. So come on guys.

Currently, in the market it is possible to find tools with both functions, that is, a screwdriver and a drill in one tool. So this tool here may have some minor differences to yours, but the principle of operation is the same.

Screwdriver: Components
The screwdriver basically has two important parts, the electrical part and the mechanical part. Let’s start with the mechanical part that has two parts, which is the reduction box and the mandrel, as you can see in the image below.

Drill and screwdriver, how to do maintenance?
The mechanical part of the screwdriver consists of the reduction box and mandrel.

The gearbox has the function of reducing the number of motor turns, and at the same time increasing the torque that will be transferred to the screwdriver bit. Therefore, this same engine can present a huge speed difference when it is without the gearbox.

The gearbox spring changes the torque, the more compressed it is, the greater the torque at the tip. In the image below we can see the plastic part that compresses or expands the spring, increasing or reducing the torque of the screwdriver.

Electric drill
Detail of the gearbox spring that controls the torque change of the screwdriver!

In the next image, it is possible to see that the mandrel is attached to the tip of the reducer, which is also called by some people as a clutch. Know that there is a keyless chuck or key chuck. As this screwdriver model accepts both types, I can use a mandrel with or without a key, but this is a detail that you must observe very well.

The electric part of the screwdriver
Fit the chuck to the battery screwdriver reduction box!

Screwdriver: Electrical
Now we get to the electrical part! As you can see in the image below, the electrical part of this screwdriver has only 3 parts. It consists of the battery, the speed-controlled driver and the engine.

Electric drill
The electric part of the screwdriver is made up of the battery, the driver with speed control and the motor.

The battery is a lithium-ion battery and by looking at the underside of it, you can see the battery cells. Each cell provides a maximum of 4V, that is, the maximum capacity of this battery when fully charged is 20V.

The electric part of the screwdriver
Detail of the lithium battery cells of the screwdriver!

The next part of the electrical part is the trigger with speed control, and when I researched it I saw that it is a part that many people would like to know how it works. The time has come to kill your curiosity now, so look closely at the image below!

On one side of the actuator, there are the cables that connect to the battery through this black contact. At the end of this contact is a led that is very useful to illuminate the work being done. And on the other side there are cables that connect to the engine.

Drill and screwdriver, how to do maintenance?
Detail of the electrical components of the battery-operated screwdriver.

Inside this controller, there is an electronic circuit that controls the amount of voltage that is released to the motor. Therefore, it is easy to understand that this variation in voltage changes the motor speed! This driver of our screwdriver accepts a maximum voltage of 24V and a current of up to 15A, totaling a maximum p

The electric part of the screwdriver
See the voltage and current that this battery screwdriver supports!

We arrived at the screwdriver motor, which for many people is the main part. This is a brush motor, but as it is shielded it is not possible to change the brushes. When you use the tools and notice that a lot of sparks are coming out, it is a sign that the brushes are worn out, so very soon it will be necessary to change this motor.