Automatic home irrigation system, how to do?

Have you forgotten to water your plants or travelled and cannot water? So imagine having an automatic irrigation system in your home. In this article, the World of Electrical shows how a homemade automatic irrigation system works and the step by step how to do it, come on guys!

In this rush that we currently live in, any task in our routine that can be automated becomes a time saver. So we had the idea of showing a very simple system to automate the irrigation of a garden or vegetable garden.

What is Automation?
The automation is a system used to control in automated processes that control the mechanisms for its own operation, taking measurements and introducing corrections without the need for frequent human interference.

Task automation aims to identify repetitive activities done manually and create solutions, such as software and applications, always looking for answers to the following questions:

Do the activities follow clear and standardized rules?
How important is the activity to the final value of the product?
Are the activities repetitive?
Automatic home irrigation system
The irrigation control that we are going to show uses a weekly daily programmer, which is super simple to assemble and is another service option that can be sold by the professional of the World of Electrical.

The automatic irrigation system will consist of two parts, one part is the irrigator and the other is the actuation command. The sprinkler is a hose with small holes connected to a solenoid valve, which will be installed close to the points to be irrigated.

Irrigator and actuation command.
Automatic home irrigation system.

The solenoid valve is a controlled electromechanical valve, whose function is to control the flow of liquid and gases. When the solenoid valve is energized, it allows water or other liquid to pass, already de-energized the solenoid blocks the passage of water, functioning as an automatic tap.

Mounting the sprinkler
The assembly of the irrigator is very simple, we will use a quick hose coupling system to facilitate the connections. The solenoid has a 1/2 inch thread at the inlet and outlet, and although the quick coupling system is 3/4 inch thread, it already comes with a 1/2 inch thread adapter.

The solenoid inlet will be connected to a water point which in our case was a washing machine tap that has two water outlets, that is, I have a tap with an outlet for the tank and another tap on the side that we use to connect the solenoid inlet. On the outlet side of the solenoid, the hose that goes to the garden will be connected.

Mounting the sprinkler.
Connecting the hose to the solenoid and tap.

Mounting the drive command.
As the irrigation system will only activate a low power solenoid, we will only use the hour programmer for the command. If a connection was to be made for a more powerful irrigation load such as a motor, it would be necessary to use a contractor and a circuit breaker for protection. The timer will be connected to a general-purpose outlet point protected on the QDC by a suitable circuit breaker. The timer is a relay that can be activated on the programmed day and time, just like any relay, needs power and this model we are using is a bolt, so it accepts voltage from 110V to 240V.

First, connect a phase and neutral cable from the socket to the timer, at terminals 1 and 2, using a male plug. The phase cable is connected to terminal 1 and will be bypassed to terminal 4 of the timer, which is the common contact of the relay. In contact 5 of the programmer, which is the normally open contact, I will connect a direct cable to one of the solenoid contacts. Finally, when the controller is connected, the neutral cable is connected to terminal 2 and will be connected to the solenoid free contact.

Mounting the drive command.
Timer connection to the solenoid.

The use of a plug to connect the programmer is very important because in any maintenance it is easy to disconnect the entire circuit. As for programming, you don’t have to worry about losing it, because this timer has an internal battery, so even if you disconnect it from the power supply, you won’t lose the programming and the settings made.

Timer setting
The setting of the duration and frequency of irrigation will depend on the plants that will be irrigated. The timer has memory for up to 40 settings, 20 for turning on and 20 for turning off. Therefore, you can choose between turning on and off every day, every other day, just one day of the week and many other settings.

For our irrigation, we will program to switch on and off Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays for one minute, always at five in the afternoon. It seems little, but as our garden is small, 1 minute will be enough time to irrigate.

Manual button
The timer has a manual button that, when pressed, activates the relay, allowing the one in our sprinkler to be used for manual mode, without having to wait to activate the programming.

Timer configuration.
The manual button that when pressed activates the relay.

Contactor drive
This relay of the programmer is for small loads, accepting a maximum of 10A, but the relay can activate a contractor and make the interface for a piece of higher power equipment, for example, motor or three-phase pump. The control connection is exactly the same as the one used on the solenoid, but this will be replaced by a contactor. Of course, in this case, the pump must be protected with a motor circuit breaker. If you have any questions on the topic, below we have a video from the World of Electrical explaining how to connect contactor wit.