They are electric conductors with different names just because they have distinctions in their internal compositions, but with the same purpose and characteristics as the conduction of electric current. Classified according to the NBR NM 280: 2011 standard, which defines the category of electrical conductors, wires with only one solid conductor while cables are composed of several smaller conductors according to their class, are made of copper and also of aluminum, because as we all know, copper and aluminum are metals with excellent conductive characteristics of electricity.
A conducting wire is formed by a single wire, with a constant metallic section in which there is no difference in relation to the current conduction capacity in residential installations. Due to its stiffness, it is easier to break if it is bent a few times. For this reason, they are only used in situations where they will not be subjected to bending and their classification as CLASS 1: SOLID WIRE COMPOSED OF ONLY ONE DRIVER.
A conductor cable is formed by several conducting wires, interlaced, which makes it flexible and withstands many bends without ever breaking. For this reason, they are used in the connection between two parts of a circuit that can change their position and are therefore subjected to bending efforts. We can find electrical cables in all household appliances, for example, if the industries use wires, these would break because they cannot stand being bent frequently.
The section, or the “thickness” of a wire or a conductor cable, depends on the amount of electricity that it will have to support. It can also be said that there are conductors with various sections and with multiple configurations. As an example, I can point out the single-wire (single-wire) conductors, the two-wire (two-wire) conductors, the three-wire (three-wire) conductors.
CLASS 3: Composed of 7 conductors (Rigid).
CLASS 4: Composed of 45 conductors (Flexible).
CLASS 5: Composed of 75 conductors (Extra flexible).
It is not possible to obtain a good splice of flexible cables and solid wires because the wire contains only one conductor and the cable has several thin wires. If necessary, splice a flexible cable into solid wire, it must be made using appropriate connectors for this purpose or tinning with electronic solder. Apart from these alternatives, it is not recommended to make these amendments. Amendments with good insulation protect your circuit from future heating and bad contact, make sure that your seam is not loose as a bad contact can cause the misuse of your device.
Conductor color according to NBR 5410 standard.
220.127.116.11.1 Any insulated conductor, unipolar cable or multipolar cable vein used as a
neutral conductor must be identified according to this function. In case of color identification, the light
blue color must be used in the insulation of the isolated conductor or the vein of the multipolar cable, or in the cover of the unipolar cable.
18.104.22.168.2 Any insulated conductor, unipolar cable or vein of multipolar cable used as a
protective conductor (PE) must be identified according to this function. In case of color identification,
double green-yellow or green color (colors exclusive to the protection function) must be used, in the insulation
of the isolated conductor or the vein of the multipolar cable, or in the cover of the unipolar cable.
22.214.171.124.3 Any insulated conductor, unipolar cable or multipolar cable vein used as a
PEN conductor must be identified according to this function. In case of color identification,
light blue color, with green-yellow washers at visible or accessible points , should be used for the insulation of the isolated conductor
or the vein of the multipolar cable, or in the cover of the unipolar cable.
NOTE The vein with light blue insulation of a multipolar cable can be used for functions other than the
neutral conductor, if the circuit has no neutral conductor or if the cable has a peripheral conductor used as
NOTE For safety reasons, the only yellow insulation color should not be used where there is a risk of confusion with the double yellow-green color, which is exclusive to the protective conductor.
We now know how to differentiate between cables and wires, considering that the same purpose and without the difference in their current conduction capacity, with the class standardized by NBR NM 280: 2011, thus facilitating their distinction between cables and electrical wires, we also learned that the phase can be any color except for the characteristics of the NBR 5410 standard described below.