Today we have in the labor market many people with technical training in electrotechnics, professionals trained in activities of execution, maintenance of components, and electronic equipment. This training makes it possible for these professionals to work in various areas such as metallurgical industries, technical assistance, telecommunications and even in civil construction. But their main area of activity in the job market is in activities aimed at generation, and transmission and distribution of electricity. One of the areas most followed by these technicians is the branch of electrical projects.
The electrical project is a union of tables and plans that define where the electrical points (sockets, lamps and distribution board) will be placed, specifies the material to be installed, cable routing, performs the budget and sizing calculation, informs about the context of the installation of the electrical part in a residence, and the small industry or similar.
However, there is a maximum power installation limit that a technician can authorize and sign the project. According to DECREE No. 90.922, OF 6 FEB 1985, technicians can design, install and sign projects with up to a maximum of 800KVA, that is, they can perform their function in installations with low voltages.
So the question arises as to why there is a maximum installation power for a technician? The justification is simple, during training at the technical level, the curriculum does not include all the disciplines necessary to calculate and project powers above 800KVA already regulated. When all project calculations are finalized and all active powers are added, the power factor is used to identify what energy will be needed for everything to work correctly, that is, the “amount of electricity” that the concessionaire will make available for the project. project.
From the moment the power exceeds the value of 75 KW, substation projects are required by the concessionaire suppliers.
The substation has a direct connection through a transformer to the distribution network and high voltage, and for this situation, subjects that are taught only in higher education in Engineering courses are required in the curriculum, so only those who have such training are adequately prepared for such a situation. This generates a great discussion regarding a maximum level of 75KW for projects and the responsibility of a technician.
After graduating from a course in the field of Electrical Engineering, according to Resolution Nº 218, OF 29 JUN 1973, the professional can perform all the activities of the 1st article, this resolution allows the electrical engineer to act in the elaboration of plants of generation industries energy, such as hydroelectric plants, wind farms and others.
For a project to be valid some steps must be followed:
- Registration with the competent class council;
In Brazil, the competent council for the technical areas is the CREA Regional Council of Engineering and Agronomy, all professionals of technical or higher level (whether engineers or technologists) must be registered with the state CREA’s.
- ART registration of the project;
ART is an acronym for annotation of technical responsibility, this document is issued by CREA and identifies who is the technical responsible for the project, work or maintenance, this document is a device that guarantees a contract of responsibility for the service of the technical areas.
- Carry out a project according to the established standards;
Working within standards is a guarantee that the project will be carried out in an appropriate and safe manner in accordance with ideal products, components and practices. ABNT Brazilian Association of Technical Standards is the body responsible for issuing technical standards in Brazil, for the area of electricity, ABNT has a specific committee, the ABNT / CB-003 – Brazilian Electricity Committee.