As we know, the job market is increasingly competitive, which demands even more from professionals who are looking for recognition, so seeking knowledge is the main factor for a successful career. An electrician who does not know how to read and interpret electrical diagrams is at a disadvantage compared to other electricians, thinking about it we decided to help you take the first step to understand how to read and interpret electrical diagrams.
In this article, we will show the main symbologies found in the single-line diagram, multi-line diagram and three-wire diagrams, such as symbologies used to identify conductors, conduits, passage boxes, circuit distribution boards (QDC), switches, lamps, sockets, and others.
Before we start it is worth noting that knowing the main symbols found in electrical diagrams is just the beginning so that you can be able to read and interpret an electrical diagram, without much difficulty, you need to study even more and certainly a lot of practice, it is also good that you seek to take a course in reading and interpreting diagrams, in addition, we have several articles and videos teaching about electrical diagrams, which will certainly help you!k
Symbology for electrical diagrams: Importance
Electrical diagrams are a set of graphic symbols, these symbols are capable of representing an electrical installation or part of one of the installation, as the electrical diagram guarantees a common language for any electrician, as the drawing is a visual representation capable of being understood in anywhere in the world.
Symbols for electrical diagrams: Conduits
The conduits are responsible for carrying electrical conductors through the walls and roof of the building, they are essential in an electrical installation, although they do not need electricity to be useful. There are several representations for the conduits, such as conduits that pass through the wall, ceiling, floor, which are going up or down for example. See the appropriate symbologies in the image below:
We can express the diameter of the conduits both in millimeters and in inches as well, as we can see the indications below:
Symbols for electrical diagrams: Conductors
Electrical conductors are used to interconnecting components and electrical devices, as they are responsible for conducting electrical energy. We must always represent the conductors properly in the diagrams because we must know the number of cables that is passing through the conduit. There is proper representation for all types of conductors, such as phase, neutral, earth, positive, negative and all types of return, which can be seen in the image below:
Symbols for electrical diagrams: Pass-through boxes
The pass boxes are used to facilitate the passage of cables over long distances, or sites containing many curves, which makes it difficult to pass these cables.
We use the passage boxes as derivation points for the conduits, because in no way can we amend the conduits, therefore the symbologies of the passage boxes contain the letter “P”, being used only for derivation, without any plug or switch. See the symbologies below:
It is important to highlight that the light boxes are nothing more than built-in passage boxes, being used to hold components, such as sockets and / or switches, in addition to a ceiling box for installing lamps and lamps.
Symbols for electrical diagrams: Distribution board
The distribution board is the center of all electrical installation, one of the most important parts, as it receives the meter conductors and performs the division of the circuits, in addition to being in the distribution board the location where most of the protection devices are located. installation. The symbologies for the distribution boards are very simple, see the image below:
Symbols for electrical diagrams: Switches
The switches are command devices, used to turn on and off a particular circuit, especially lighting points, and bells. We emphasize that we can find two symbologies, and symbologies of the letter “S” attached to the wall can be an alternative, as shown in the image below:
Symbols for electrical diagrams: luminaires
The luminaires are responsible components of the lamps, in the symbology of the luminaires it contains several information, such as the circuit to which the luminaire belongs, power and quantity of lamps.
Symbols for electrical diagrams: Sockets
Electrical outlets are a connection point capable of supplying electrical energy, there are several types of outlets, with different standards around the world, but this factor is not relevant in electrical design. In an electrical project we need to specify, the height that the outlet point is installed, what circuit it belongs to and what its power, if it is not a special use outlet, its power must be indicated.
There are basically four symbologies for electrical diagrams, high, medium, low and floor sockets, as we can see in the image below: