What are electrical charges and how to calculate?

What is electric charge? This is a very common question among ENEM’s questions! If you do not know what electric charges are and how to calculate electric charge, read this article from the World of Electricity carefully, because we will help not only those who are studying for ENEM, but also all the people who are going to college or are going to provide others contests, so come on guys!

What are electrical charges?

The physical concept of electric charge determines what are the electromagnetic interactions of the electrified bodies. Therefore, according to the friction between the bodies, the phenomenon known as “electrification” occurs. In this situation, all bodies have the property of repelling or attracting each other.

If you look closely, charges of the same nature repel (negative and negative) or (positive and positive). When the charges are of a different nature, that is, of opposite signs, they attract (negative and positive).

This is because electrical charges are composed of particles that make up atoms. These particles can be protons (positive charge), they can be electrons (negative charge) and they can also be neutrons (neutral charge).

Learn what electrical charge is and how to calculate electrical charges


The fundamental units of matter are atoms. They are formed by a nucleus with a positive electric charge (protons), in addition to neutrally charged particles (neutrons). The atomic nucleus makes up practically the entire mass of the atom, (99.9%), it is surrounded by a layer of negatively charged electrons.


The electrically charged particles are protons (p +), which together with neutrons make up the nucleus of atoms. Protons have a charge value equal to that of electrons. So it’s easy to understand why protons and electrons tend to attract each other electrically.


The minuscule electrically charged particles are electrons (e-), which have a negligible mass, being approximately 1,840 times smaller than the mass of the atomic nucleus. Electrons are found in the electrosphere, surrounding the atomic nucleus from the electromagnetic force.


Neutrally charged particles are neutrons (n0). As the name suggests, these particles have no charge, but they play an important role in the nucleus of atoms, providing stability to the atomic nucleus.

What is a Point Electric Charge?

Electric charges are called punctate when they correspond to the electrified bodies with negligible dimensions and mass when compared to the distances that separate them from other electrified bodies.

What is the electric charge unit?

According to the International System, the electric charge unit is the Coulomb, represented by (C) in honor of the French physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb who was born in 1736 and died in 1806. Coulomb received this honor because of his numerous contributions to electricity studies.

Coulomb’s Law

To understand how to improve this unit we need to know Coulomb’s Law, which as its name suggests was created by physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb back in the late 18th century. Coulomb’s law presents the concepts of electrostatic interaction between particles that are electrically charged, it says that:

  • “The force of mutual action between two charged bodies has the direction of the line that joins the bodies and its intensity is directly proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance that separates them”.

How to calculate the strength of loads?

To calculate the strength of the loads the process is relatively simple! Just follow the formula and values ​​shown in the image below:

Formula to know how to calculate the strength of loads?

We also need to talk about the electric field, which is the place where there is a strong concentration of electrical force. Therefore, we can summarize by saying that the electric field is a type of force that the electric charges generate around it.