Wind energy is a renewable, clean, and infinite source of energy and more and more space is being taken in the Brazilian and global energy matrix, clarifying the main doubts, such as: what is wind energy? How does a wind power generator work? What are the advantages and disadvantages of wind energy? What is a wind turbine and how does it work? It is the first step for us to iterate this type of energy generation that will soon be closer to the entire population.
Wind energy is generated basically through kinetic energy that is transformed into electrical energy, through an aerogenerator.
What are wind turbines?
The wind turbines have a fundamental function for the generation of wind energy, it is the wind turbine or wind generation system, which is an equipment that uses the kinetic energy of the wind, converting it to electrical energy. There are basically two types of wind turbines, the one with the vertical axis rotor and the one with the horizontal axis.
Wind turbines with vertical axis rotor
The wind turbines with vertical axis rotor are safer, easier to build, they can be mounted closer to the ground and deal much better with turbulent conditions, their size facilitates maintenance operations, they have a lower starting speed in relation to those of horizontal axis which brings advantages in the case of low wind speed. It is indicated for urban areas, because it is quieter and because it can catch the wind from any direction.
As the vertical axis wind turbines are lower, they are less efficient than the horizontal axis wind turbines, because the intensity of the wind close to the ground is less. In addition to being generally more expensive than the horizontal axis
Wind turbines with horizontal axis rotor
The horizontal wind turbines are based on windmills, composed of sets of one to two blades or multiple, each set has at least three blades. Wind turbines with the horizontal axis are the most used due to their high aerodynamic performance, well above those of vertical axis, since they are less exposed to mechanical efforts, compensating their high cost, besides being used in the production of electricity in large scale.
How wind power generation works
The system for obtaining electrical energy through a wind generator basically works with a wind turbine, a charge controller, a battery and an inverter, this in the case of off grid systems, that is to say, disconnected from the utility grid, in the case of systems on grid, connected to the utility network, no batteries and charge controller are used.
The blades of the wind turbine are responsible for blocking the passage of the wind, thus the wind exerts a force on the blades, forcing the rotor to move because the blades are connected. For the movement of the rotor to occur, the blades connected to the rotor must have an angle with respect to the wind and cannot be perpendicular.
The rotor has the function of transmitting the rotation to the gearbox of the wind turbine, which work together with a power converter, converts the mechanical energy received by the turbine into electrical energy.
The energy from the wind turbine can be stored in stationary batteries, which allow energy to be consumed when it is not windy, preventing electricity shortages when the wind turbine is not working, or in some cases inject the energy produced directly into the dealership, in which case the batteries.
For the energy produced by the wind turbine to be consumed, it is necessary to change the electric current. This is because the voltages produced in the wind turbine are not compatible with those used in homes or industrial plant because the current produced is continuous while the current for consumption is alternated. In this situation, a sinusoidal current inverter is used that transforms direct current into alternating current.
The source of wind energy is not yet widely used in Brazil, but it has great advantages, as it is an inexhaustible energy source, does not emit polluting gases, does not generate waste.
Wind farms can also be used for other purposes, bringing the generation of investment in disadvantaged areas is one of the cheapest sources of energy, being able to compete in terms of profitability with other traditional and renewable energy sources, even compared to nuclear energy, which is one of the energies of the future .
Another advantage is that frequent maintenance is not necessary. and it is not necessary to supply the wind turbines for their operation.
As the production of electric energy through a wind generator depends on the strength of the wind to work, at certain times there is no generation of energy, because the winds are not constant.
For some it is considered as visual pollution, it causes noise pollution, due to the winds that hit the blades, producing constant noise, making it necessary a long distance so that there can be some type of housing without any disturbance, besides affecting the migration behavior of birds