What are Electric Motors?
Electric motors are machines that are responsible for converting electrical energy into mechanical energy through the action of magnetic fields produced by their coils.
They can be divided into three large groups:
1.Direct current motors
2.Alternating current motors
1.Direct Current Motors(DC):
In this type of electric motor, the armature and the inductor are connected in series. Its voltage is constant and the field of excitation increases with the load since the current is the same as the excitation. It is characterized by maintaining a constant power at any speed.
This electric motor contains two inductor windings, one placed in series and one in derivation with the circuit, which are the ones that produce the excitation. They are used when a stable response is required for a wide speed range. Shunt motor
For its part, this device has its inductor connected in parallel with the circuit composed of the induced windings. It has a high resistance thanks to the characteristics of its coils and is the most suitable when constant speed is required.
3.Brushless electric motor
The popular brushless motor does not use brushes to change the polarity of the rotor. They are one of the most common currently because they are cost-effective, lightweight and do not require much maintenance.
Within DC electric motors, we can also identify other types that are commonly used in the field of electronics:
This motor is capable of transforming a series of electrical impulses into discrete angular displacements, that is, a series of degrees progress depending on its control inputs. It stands out for its precision.
This device has the ability to be in any position within its operating range and remain stable in that position.
2.Alternating Current Motors(AC)
The electrical current electric motors operate with electric current thanks to the turning forces by means of the mutual action of the magnetic fields.
They are classified into two classes:
In this device, the speed of the magnetic field produced by the stator exceeds the speed of rotation of the rotor.
Synchronous motors are characterized because their stator magnetic field velocity is equal to the rotational speed of the rotor
These electric motors are capable of operating in both AC and DC. They have a lower number of turns in the inductor to not magnetically fill their core and reduce the losses by eddy currents and hysteresis, as well as a greater number of turns in the armature to balance the decreased inflow due to the lower number of turns of the inductor.